Teaching Children with Autism
I am an information junkie. I have more information about teaching children with autism than I know what to do with. Perhaps I will work my way through some of it, wharing various items with you. For the most part, I have no idea where they came from – apologies to those authors that I can’t thank.
AUTOCLITIC. A unit of verbal behavior that depends on other verbal behavior for its occurrence and that modifies the effects of that other verbal behavior …
Notes on Autoclitic
Some of this material is from writings by J. Michael & N. Peterson
Regular tacts can be controlled by verbal behavior. Reinforcement for these tacts is generalized reinforcement or effective action of the listener.
- Tacts of verbal behavior of another person
VB of another person may function as a Sd for vb
i.e., tacts under control of properties of vb; “He said thank you very softly.” “Her response was thoughtful.”
i.e., tacts (perhaps intraverbals) occasioned by the controlling variables of other’s vb: “He is lying.”
- Speaker tacts properties of his/her own Verbal Behavior (Secondary Verbal Behavior)
VB of the speaker may function as Sd for vb
i.e., tacts under control of properties of vb; “I spoke very softly”
VB that functions as a Sd is usually public and already occurred.
Autoclitic (Secondary Verbal Behavior)
Collateral responses (secondary verbal behavior) to the speaker’s verbal behavior (primary verbal behavior) that alter the effectiveness of the primary vb or the reaction the listener takes with respect to the primary vb Autoclitic responses depend on other verbal behavior, e.g., responses such as “like,” “almost,” and “the” do not occur alone.
Types of autoclitics:
- Descriptive autoclitics (autoclitic tacts)
Verbal response may be descriptive of the conditions under which the speaker’s response is emitted and may therefore be described as autoclitic tacts, e.g., they may tact the type of response, the strength of the response, the manner of a response, that a response is being emitted, that response is unusual, or they may tact how the response relates to other responses or aspects of the situation. Listeners tend to reinforce tacts and tacts (autoclitic tacts) that describe the nature of that controlling relationship. Reinforcement is generalized reinforcement or action the listener takes with respect to primary vb.
Types of descriptive autoclitics:
- Descriptive of controlling variables, i.e., the type of verbal operant “I see it is raining” (tacts that the response is a tact), “I heard that it will rain” (tacts that the response is echoic), ” I read that it will rain” (tacts that the response is textual)
- Tact of the strength of the relationship between stimulus and response. “I think it is a dog”
- Tact of the strength of the relationship between stimulus and response. “I am positive he is gone.”
- Tact of the strength of the relationship between stimulus and response. “It IS a dog.”
- Tacts that the controlling variables are not quite right = “I doubt that is a dog.”
- Tact of the relation of response to other controlling variables = “I admit that I made a mistake.”
- Tacts that the response is a magical mand = “I wish it would stop raining”
- Negative autoclitic: Cancels response, but tacts that a speaker’s response is strong but some of the controlling variables are missing = “I would not call that a wolf”
- Tacts that indicate a response is being emitted, “Look, this is the correct form.”
- Tacts that the response is an unusual: “He’s a newbie, so to speak.“
- The response should have same effect as what has just been said: “In other words, it’s a bad idea”
- Tacts the nature of the response as an intraverbal/digression: “That reminds me, we need top pick up some ice”
Explain why the following are descriptive autoclitics:
- “I heard on the news that it is going to rain.”
- “I’m asking you, please check the file.”
- “I’m certain that you put the receipt in your purse.”
- “I would not say that it is easy”
- “It is not a process that alters the strength of the response, for example, as reinforcement”
- “I mean to say, it is not that bad.”’
- Autoclitic Mands
Autoclitic mand, part of the EO for the mand is a particular response on the part of the listener.
The mand enjoins the listener to respond to the primary verbal behavior in a particular way.
Types of autoclitic mands
- Mands specific action on the listener, “See, there is only one answer”
- Mands the listener to construct additional verbal behavior “Ditto”
- Mands that deflect, stop, start listeners behavior, “Now then, let’s begin” “Assume there is an EO in place”
Explain why the following are autoclitic mands:
- “The speaker influences the behavior of the listener, and vice versa“
- “Think of it this way, it’ll save you time later.”
- She said, quote, “I love these.”
- Turn right — oh delete that — turn left.
- Qualifying Autoclitic
Qualifying autoclitics alter the intensity of direction of the listener’s behavior with respect to the primary verbal behavior. May be considered an autoclitic mand.
Types of qualifying autoclitics
- Negation: Enjoins the listener to not act upon the response as a tact: A parent to a child “That is not real candy.”
- Assertion: Enjoins the listener to strengthen his/her reaction to the response or accept a given state of affairs. EOs may be conditions that weaken the listener’s response: “That IS a wolf.”
- Enjoins the listener to respond to the following as an unusual instance, i.e., metaphorical extension = “It is like a wolf”, generic extension = “It is kind of like a wolf.”
- Enjoins the listener to respond to the response as a tact= “It is a book.”
- Enjoins the listener to alter direction/intensity of response by indicating stimulus properties (e.g., probability) of stimuli controlling response: “He will probably come.”
Explain why the following are autoclitic mands:
- It is not hot outside.
- Someone is singing
- The spice tastes sort of like oregano.
- The song is like a conversation.
- Quantifying autoclitics
Quantifying autoclitics specify the range of application of a listener’s response by indicating the relation between the speaker’s response and the controlling stimulus. Maybe be viewed as a type of autoclitic tact.
Types of quantifying autoclitics
- Expands the reaction of the listener by indicating the relevant controlling conditions for the speaker’s VB (i.e., the consistency). Indicates that the speaker has always been able to emit the tact. , e.g., “All books are on sale.”
- Narrows the reaction of the listener by indicating the relevant controlling conditions for the speaker’s VB (i.e., the inconsistency), Indicates that the speaker has only sometimes been able to emit the tact. e.g., “Some books are on sale.”
- Narrows the reaction of the listener by indicating that the speaker’s response is controlled by a particular or currently relevant object or event, e.g., “The book is on the table”
- Narrows the reaction of the listener by indicating that the response is controlled by a member of a class of objects or events: “A book is on the table”